EtymologyOld English cyrf “a cutting off, a cutting instrument.”
Nounkerf (plural: kerfs)
- a groove or slit in a material caused by
cutting; an incision
- 1999: They pass through a cleft that has been made across a low range of hills, like a kerf in the top of a log, and enter into a lovely territory of subtly swelling emerald green fields strewn randomly with small white capsules that he takes to be sheep. — Neal Stephenson, Cryptonomicon
This article is about the tool, for the films series see Saw (film series) A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. A saw may be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, electric or other power.
In a modern serrated saw, each tooth is bent to a precise angle called its "set". The set of the teeth is determined by the kind of cut the saw is intended to make. For example a "rip saw" has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel. The idea is to have the teeth rip or tear the material apart. Some teeth are usually splayed slightly to each side the blade, so that the cut width (kerf) is wider than the blade itself and the blade does not bind in the cut.
An abrasive saw uses an abrasive disc or band for cutting, rather than a serrated blade.
According to Chinese tradition, the saw was invented by Lu Ban. In Greek mythology, Perdix, the nephew of Daedalos, invented the saw. Historically, however, saws date back to prehistory, and likely evolved from Neolithic tools or bone tools.
- Heel: The end closest to the handle.
- Toe: The end farthest from the handle.
- Front: The side with the teeth (the "bottom edge").
- Back: Opposite the front ("top edge").
- Teeth: Small sharp points along the cutting side of the saw.
- Gullet: Valley between the points of the teeth
- Fleam: The angle of the faces of the teeth relative to a line perpendicular to the face of the saw.
- Rake: The angle of the front face of the tooth relative to a line perpendicular to the length of the saw. Teeth designed to cut with the grain (ripping) are generally steeper than teeth designed to cut across the grain (crosscutting)
- Points per inch (25 mm): The most common measurement of the frequency of teeth on a saw blade. This is measured by setting the tip, or point, of one tooth at the zero point on a ruler, and then counting how many points are contained within one inch (25 mm) of length, counting inclusively. There will always be one more point per inch than there are teeth per inch (e.g., a saw with 14 points per inch will have 13 teeth per inch, a saw with 10 points per inch will have 9 teeth per inch). Some saws do not have the same number of teeth per inch throughout their entire length, but the vast majority do.
- Teeth Per inch : Another common measurement of the amount of teeth residing in any one inch length of a saw blade. Usually abbreviated as TPI, eg a blade consisting of 18TPI (Teeth Per Inch).
- Kerf: Width of the saw cut. On most saws the kerf is wider than the saw blade because the teeth are flared out sideways (set). This allows the blade to move through the cut easily without getting stuck (binding). However, some saws are made so that the teeth have no set on one side. This is done so that the saw can lie flat on a surface and cut along the surface without scratching it. These are referred to as flush cutting saws. The term kerf is often used to mean the width of the saw blade. However it is the width of the cut so it is the width of the blade plus any wobble created during cutting plus any material pulled out of the sides of the cut. This distinction can be extremely important. If you try to use a blade that is too thin you can get excessive wobble and actually get a wider kerf.
Types of saw blades and the cuts they makeBlade teeth are of two general types: Tool steel or carbide. Carbide is harder and holds a sharp edge much longer. ;Rip cut: In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A rip saw is used to make this type of cut.;Dado blade: A special type of circular saw blade used for making wide grooved cuts in wood so the edge of another piece of wood will fit into the groove to make a joint. Dado blades can make different width grooves by addition or removal of chipper blades of various widths between the outer dado blades. This first type is called a stacked dado blade. There is another type of dado blade capable of cutting variable width grooves. An adjustable dado utilizes a moveable locking cam mechanism which causes the blade to wobble sideways more or less. This allows continuously variable groove width from the lower to upper design limits of the dado.
Materials used for sawsThere are several materials used in saws, with each of its own specifications. ;Steel: Used in almost every existing kind of saw. Because steel is cheap, easy to shape, and very strong, it has the right properties for most kind of saws.
Handmade manufactureSaws until at least the mid-19th century were made laborously by hand. Teeth were punched out individually, then "set" by striking alternate teeth with a hammer against a "stake" or small anvil. Due to risk of breaking teeth, beginners were given saw-set pliers which set even more slowly.
Pit SawIn early English North America the pit saw was one of the principal industrial tools that made the mercantilist system successful. It was (generally) operated over a pit across which the logs to be cut into boards were mounted. The saw was "a strong steel cutting-plate, of great breadth, with large teeth, highly polished and thoroughly wrought, some eight or ten feet in length" (Upham Hist. of Salem v1, p 191) with a handle on either end. The pit saw took at least 2 men to operate. One stood in the pit - the pitman, who was responsible for raising the saw on the backstroke - and the other was above - the sawyer, responsible for guiding the cut. The workers at a pit saw were some of the best paid in early colonial North America.
The pit saw is also known as a whipsaw.
Saws in nature
Serration is also found on leaf edges.
kerf in Arabic: منشار
kerf in Catalan: Serra (eina)
kerf in Czech: Pila
kerf in Danish: Sav
kerf in German: Säge
kerf in Estonian: Saag
kerf in Spanish: Sierra (herramienta)
kerf in Esperanto: Segilo
kerf in Persian: اره
kerf in French: Scie
kerf in Ido: Segilo
kerf in Indonesian: Gergaji
kerf in Icelandic: Sög
kerf in Italian: Sega (strumento)
kerf in Hebrew: מסור
kerf in Javanese: Piła
kerf in Pampanga: Lagari
kerf in Lithuanian: Pjūklas
kerf in Dutch: Zaag
kerf in Japanese: 鋸
kerf in Norwegian: Sag
kerf in Norwegian Nynorsk: Sag
kerf in Polish: Piła
kerf in Portuguese: Serrote
kerf in Russian: Пила
kerf in Simple English: Saw
kerf in Slovak: Piła
kerf in Finnish: Saha
kerf in Swedish: Såg
kerf in Yiddish: זעג
kerf in Chinese: 鋸